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Biomass

Biomass is “the biodegradable fraction of waste, residues from agriculture (including vegetal and animal substances), forestry and related industries, as well as the biodegradable fraction of industry and municipal waste”.
(European Commission’s definition).


Biomass is any organic matter, typically plant-based, that is available on a renewable and/or recurring basis. Biomass resources include forest and mill residues, agricultural crops and waste, wood and wood waste, animal waste, livestock operation residues, aquatic plants, fast-growing trees and plants and municipal as well as industrial waste.
Biomass can be used, directly by converting it into energy in its solid or gasified form, for heating and/or power generation purposes, or indirectly by converting it into solid, liquid or gaseous fuels (such as green coal or bioethanol).
   

The various types of biomass resources can be classified in function of their origin.

Supply sector        
 
    Type                               
 
    Example                            
 
   
Forestry
 
  Dedicated forestry   Short rotation plantations (e.g. willow, poplar, eucalyptus)
  Forestry by-products   Wood blocks, wood chips from thinning (dead trees, ...)
          
Agriculture
 
 
 
 
 
  Dry lignocellulosic energy crops   Herbaceous crops (e.g. miscanthus, ...)
  Oil, sugar and starch energy crops
 
 
  Oil seeds for methylesters (e.g. rape seed, sunflower)
    Sugar crops for ethanol (e.g. sugar cane, sweet sorghum)
    Starch crops for ethanol (e.g. maize, wheat)
  Agricultural residues   Straw, prunings from vineyards and fruit trees
  Livestock waste   Wet and dry manure
          
Industry
 
  Industrial residues
 
  Industrial waste wood, sawdust from sawmills
    Fibrous vegetable waste from paper industry
          
Waste
 
 
 
 
  Dry lignocellulosic   Residues from parks and gardens (e.g. prunings, grass)
  Contaminated waste
 
 
 
  Demolition wood
    Organic fraction of municipal solid waste
    Biodegradable landfill waste, landfill gas
    Sewage sludge

    
4Energy Invest, through its biomass valorisation projects,
mainly uses by-products of forestry industry, i.e. barks, shavings, wood chips...

 
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